Subnet mask tables


Subnet Mask: 255.0 Hex Mask: 0xffffff00 Subnet Mask: 255.248 Hex Mask: 0xfffffff8 Subnet Mask: 255.252 Hex Mask: 0xfffffffc
Subnet Bits: 24 Host Bits: 8 Subnet Bits: 29 Host Bits: 3 Subnet Bits: 30 Host Bits: 2
Subnets: 1 Hosts per Subnet: 254 Subnets: 32 Hosts per Subnet: 6 Subnets: 64 Hosts per Subnet: 2
Network # IP Range Broadcast Address Network # IP Range Broadcast Address Network # IP Range Broadcast Address
.0 .1-.254 .255 .0 .1-.6 .7 .0 .1-.2 .3
.8 .9-.14 .15 .4 .5-.6 .7
Subnet Mask: 255.128 Hex Mask: 0xffffff80 .16 .17-.22 .23 .8 .9-.10 .11
Subnet Bits: 25 Host Bits: 7 .24 .25-.30 .31 .12 .13-.14 .15
Subnets: 2 Hosts per Subnet: 126 .32 .33-.38 .39 .16 .17-.18 .19
Network # IP Range Broadcast Address .40 .41-.46 .47 .20 .21-.22 .23
.0 .1-.126 .127 .48 .49-.54 .55 .24 .25-.26 .27
.128 .129-.254 .255 .56 .57-.62 .63 .28 .29-.30 .31
.64 .65-.70 .71 .32 .33-.34 .35
Subnet Mask: 255.192 Hex Mask: 0xffffffc0 .72 .73-.78 .79 .36 .37-.38 .39
Subnet Bits: 26 Host Bits: 6 .80 .81-.86 .87 .40 .41-.42 .43
Subnets: 4 Hosts per Subnet: 62 .88 .89-.94 .95 .44 .45-.46 .47
Network # IP Range Broadcast Address .96 .97-.102 .103 .48 .49-.50 .51
.0 .1-.62 .63 .104 .105-.110 .111 .52 .53-.54 .55
.64 .65-.126 .127 .112 .113-.118 .119 .56 .57-.58 .59
.128 .129-.190 .191 .120 .121-.126 .127 .60 .61-.62 .63
.192 .193-.254 .255 .128 .129-.134 .135 .64 .65-.66 .67
.136 .137-.142 .143 .68 .69-.70 .71
Subnet Mask: 255.224 Hex Mask: 0xffffffe0 .144 .145-.150 .151 .72 .73-.74 .75
Subnet Bits: 27 Host Bits: 5 .152 .153-.158 .159 .76 .77-.78 .79
Subnets: 8 Hosts per Subnet: 30 .160 .161-.166 .167 .80 .81-.82 .83
Network # IP Range Broadcast Address .168 .169-.174 .175 .84 .85-.86 .87
.0 .1-.30 .31 .176 .177-.182 .183 .88 .89-.90 .91
.32 .33-.62 .63 .184 .185-.190 .191 .92 .93-.94 .95
.64 .65-.94 .95 .192 .193-.198 .199 .96 .97-.98 .99
.96 .97-.126 .127 .200 .201-.206 .207 .100 .101-.102 .103
.128 .129-.158 .159 .208 .209-.214 .215 .104 .105-.106 .107
.160 .161-.190 .191 .216 .217-.222 .223 .108 .109-.110 .111
.192 .193-.222 .223 .224 .225-.230 .231 .112 .113-.114 .115
.224 .225-.254 .255 .232 .233-.238 .239 .116 .117-.118 .119
.240 .241-.246 .247 .120 .121-.122 .123
Subnet Mask: 255.240 Hex Mask: 0xfffffff0 .248 .249-.254 .255 .124 .125-.126 .127
Subnet Bits: 28 Host Bits: 4 .128 .129-.130 .131
Subnets: 16 Hosts per Subnet: 14 .132 .133-.134 .135
Network # IP Range Broadcast Address .136 .137-.138 .139
.0 .1-.14 .15 .140 .141-.142 .143
.16 .17-.30 .31 .144 .145-.146 .147
.32 .33-.46 .47 .148 .149-.150 .151
.48 .49-.62 .63 .152 .153-.154 .155
.64 .65-.78 .79 .156 .157-.158 .159
.80 .81-.94 .95 .160 .161-.162 .163
.96 .97-.110 .111 .164 .165-.166 .167
.112 .113-.126 .127 .168 .169-.170 .171
.128 .129-.142 .143 .172 .173-.174 .175
.144 .145-.158 .159 .176 .177-.178 .179
.160 .161-.174 .175 .180 .181-.182 .183
.176 .177-.190 .191 .184 .185-.186 .187
.192 .193-.206 .207 .188 .189-.190 .191
.208 .209-.222 .223 .192 .193-.194 .195
.224 .225-.238 .239 .196 .197-.198 .199
.240 .241-.254 .255 .200 .201-.202 .203
.204 .205-.206 .207
.208 .209-.210 .211
.212 .213-.214 .215
.216 .217-.218 .219
.220 .221-.222 .223
.224 .225-.226 .227
.228 .229-.230 .231
.232 .233-.234 .235
.236 .237-.238 .239
.240 .241-.242 .243
.244 .245-.246 .247
.248 .249-.250 .251
.252 .253-.254 .255

Obscure Google Search Tricks

Obscure Google Search Tricks

Check local time anywhere
google: what time is it in Hong Kong

Check flight status
google: Delta flight 5778

Convert currency, metrics, bytes, and more
google: 10 us dollars in Australian
or if you know the currency codes for 30 Canadian dollars to US dollars
google: 30 CAD to USD

Use google as a proxy (crude)
google: cache:example.com

Remove duplicate links
google:-site:ebay.com -site:bizrate.com

Find related terms and documents
google: ~nutrition
returns results with the words nutrition, food, and health

Find music
google:-inurl:(htm|html|php) intitle:"index of" +"last modified" +"parent directory" +description +size +(wma|mp3) "Nirvana"
returns Nirvana tracks

Make google recognize faces
If you are doing an image search and only want faces add &imgtype=face to the end of your image search to just get images of faces, without any inanimate objects.

Make google track UPS, FedEx, and USPS packages
google: 1Z14662R0340419XXX
This avoids going through the log in and hassle of the individual shipping company site.

Make google show you the weather
google: weather zipcode

Definitions and related phrases
google: define:term

Movie showtimes
google: movie name zipcode

Free ebooks
google: book name filetype:pdf

Auto-Redirecting a web page

Auto-Redirecting Methods

The "Meta Refresh Tag" method

This is the one auto-redirecting method that the engines can automatically detect, or so it is believed. It is also the one method that the engines are perfectly happy with as long as there is a reasonable delay between landing on a page and being redirected from it. At least 5 seconds is recommended.

The code for it must be in the section of the page, and looks like this:-

<head>
…head section stuff (Title, Description,etc.)…
<meta http-equiv="refresh" content="5;url=pagename.html">
</head>

The "content" parameter contains two parts, separated by a semi-colon. The first part is the delay, in seconds, before the redirection occurs. The second part is the URL to redirect to which, like any hyperlink, can be a relative URL (as above) or an absolute URL.

For search engine optimization purposes, a delay in the auto-redirection is not usually desirable. Using the Meta Refresh Tag with a delay of 0 (zero) seconds is not recommended, because search engines can read HTML, Meta tags are HTML, and people have had penalties from redirecting that way. For an immediate redirect, one of the other auto-redirecting methods is much better.

The "Javascript" method

Javascript auto-redirects cannot be automatically detected by the search engines because they don’t yet parse Javascript. The script can be placed anywhere on the page, but it is best to place it in the section so that it runs as soon as the page begins to load. This is a typical example:-

<head>
<script language="javascript"><!–
location.replace("pagename.html")
//–>
</script>
…other head section stuff (Title, Description,etc.)…
</head>

"pagename.html" can be any relative or absolute URL, just like a hyperlink URL.

The use of Javascript’s "replace" function causes the new page to replace the current page in the browser’s Back button’s History list. If a visitor then clicks the Back button to go back to where s/he came from, s/he doesn’t go back to the page with the auto-redirect but, instead, goes to the page before that. It avoids the annoying occurrence of the Back button taking a person back the auto-redirecting page, which immediately takes him/her forward again.

Google Hacking Database




Welcome to the Google Hacking Database (GHDB)!

We call them \’googledorks\’: Inept or foolish people as revealed by Google. Whatever you call these fools, you\’ve found the center of the Google Hacking Universe!


Advisories and Vulnerabilities

(215 entries)

These searches locate vulnerable servers. These searches are often generated from various security advisory posts, and in many cases are product or version-specific.

Error Messages

(68 entries)

Really retarded error messages that say WAY too much!

Files containing juicy info
(230 entries)

No usernames or passwords, but interesting stuff none the less.

Files containing passwords
(135 entries)

PASSWORDS, for the LOVE OF GOD!!! Google found PASSWORDS!

Files containing usernames
(15 entries)

These files contain usernames, but no passwords… Still, google finding usernames on a web site..

Footholds
(21 entries)

Examples of queries that can help a hacker gain a foothold into a web server

Pages containing login portals
(232 entries)

These are login pages for various services. Consider them the front door of a website\’s more sensitive functions.

Pages containing network or vulnerability data
(59 entries)

These pages contain such things as firewall logs, honeypot logs, network information, IDS logs… all sorts of fun stuff!

Sensitive Directories
(61 entries)

Google\’s collection of web sites sharing sensitive directories. The files contained in here will vary from sesitive to uber-secret!

Sensitive Online Shopping Info
(9 entries)

Examples of queries that can reveal online shopping info like customer data, suppliers, orders, creditcard numbers, credit card info, etc

Various Online Devices
(201 entries)

This category contains things like printers, video cameras, and all sorts of cool things found on the web with Google.

Vulnerable Files
(57 entries)

HUNDREDS of vulnerable files that Google can find on websites…

Vulnerable Servers
(48 entries)

These searches reveal servers with specific vulnerabilities. These are found in a different way than the searches found in the Vulnerable Files section.

Web Server Detection
(72 entries)

These links demonstrate Google\’s awesome ability to profile web servers..