TJs Ultimate Cheat Sheet


******(STOP A) sync … on a hung system will cause a core dump.******

OBP register commands

.locals Displays the local CPU registers

.registers Dumps the registers of the current window, those in use at the time of the crash.

.ctrace Displays a stack trace, listing routines that erer active when the system went down

(obpsym module should be loaded. see above)

.psr Formatted display of the process status register

.fregisters Display of the floating point registers

.pstate Formatted display of the process state register

.ver Formatted display of the version register

.ccr Formatted display o f the ccr or cache control register

.trap-registers Display of trap related registers

ASR commands

showcomponent view and manage the list of blacklisted (ASR-disabled) devices

enablecomponent disabled state is stored on the actual FRU, such as the DIMM itself.

disablecomponent A FRU disabled on one system will remain disabled when inserted in another system clearasrdb


normal: System can be used normally.

stby: Powers off the system and prevents \’poweron\’ command or button from operating.

diag: Forces the system to run servicemode diagnostics at next reset.

locked: Prevents \’flashupdate\’ and \’break\’ commands, system can power on/off and reset normally.


showfru command prints both static and dynamic sections

setfru command to set Customer_DataR in all FRUs

showhost version command to print the software versions contained in the Host flash prom.

obpupdate command to update the Host flash prom (POST, OBP, etc). \’obpupdate\’ and \’flashupdate\’ will be merged into a single command which will update both ALOM and the Host flash from a single master image

flash host prom

Watchdog Resets

CPU Watchdog Reset is initiated on a single processor machine when a trap condition occurs while traps

are disabled and register bit to enable traps is not set. The system tries to come down in a

deterministic state and traps to a reserved physical address

System Watchdog Reset is when a fatal error is detected on a multi-processor machine.

obpsym module should be loaded to maximize the amount of symbolic information available in the

PROM (obp) environment. Without this module, information is displayed without textual


To check if obpsym is loaded:

# modinfo | grep obpsym

To load the module from command line:

# modload -p misc/obpsym

To load module with each boot, enter the following in /etc/system:

forceload: misc/obpsym

What to look for at the OK prompt of a watchdog reset:

Note the number next to the OK prompt, which is the number of the CPU that hit the watchdog

reset (multi-processor only)

Note the information in the following fields from OK prompt:

.registers- Valid addresses associated with the window registers on


.locals – Valid addresses associated with the registers on this display

cstrace – pc addresses and routine names

.ver – The implementation (IMPL) and (MANUF) manufacturer


.trap-registers- The trap type (TT), the (TSTATE), and the processor state


.pstate – The RED value, which is similar to the ET (enable trap) bit on

SPARC Version 8.

Solaris commands and files that can be used in watchdog reset analysis:

showrev -p

prtconf -v


/usr/ccs/bin/nm /dev/ksyms > symbol_file

/usr/platform/sun4u/sbin/prtdiag -v > prtdiag_file



Related document numbers in the SunSolve database include

1360 – Trouble Shooting Watchdog Resets

14133- Is the system crash due to hardware or software

14230- System crashes and how to prepare for analysis by Sun Service

Diagnostic commands:

arp Displays Address Resolution Protocol tables.

catman -w Create the /usr/share/man/windex database for use with index function available

thru the apropos command. Creates a windex file that includes every solaris command

and a brief description.

compare Will tell you the difference between two files ex: compare /kernel /usr/kernel

crash Used to analyse crash dumps

devlinks Creates symbolic links in /dev using info in /devices

df -k Displays disk space usage in Kbytes, including free space

dfmounts Display remote filesystem mount info.

dfshares Displays shared filesystem info.

diff Compare file contents

disks Creates symbolis links in /dev/dsk and /dev/rdsk, used after the drvconfig command

drvconfig Configure the /devices directory and the device information tree.

eeprom Analyse and change PROM settings.

file Determine a file\’s type

find Search for specific files

format Analyse or modify partition information

fsck Check UFS filesystems for inconsistencies

fstyp -v Display extensive file system parameters for a specified file system.

grep Analyse file contents, and search for specific patterns.

groups Display group definitions for a given user

ifconfig -a Add, display, and analyse the status of network interfaces

iostat Analyse I/O performance issues

isainfo – v Will tell you if you are running 32 or 64 bit applications

last Display history of system login information

ls Analyse file properties

mpstat Reports processor stats on a per processor basis

ndd Get and set named device driver parameters

netstat (-i, -r, -k) Analyse network tunning information, including active routes. -i interface info/collisions,

-r router info, -k kernel info pipe to more look for interface, verbose version of -i,

newfs Create and examine file system parameters

nfsstat Analyse NFS performance information

od Octal dump of a file. ex: od -c /etc/nsswitch.conf will display all charectors in the file

pagesize Print the size of a memory page in bytes

patchdiag (sunsolve CD) Listing of recommended patches

patchadd -p Displays patches loaded on your system,

patchinstall (sunsolve CD) Is used to install patches

(ex: # cd /cdrom/cdrom0)

( # ./patchinstall)

backoutpatch (sunsolve CD) Will remove a patch after you cd to that directory

(ex: # cd /var/sadm/patch/102044-01)

( #./backoutpatch .)

perfmeter Provide graphic display of performance metrics

ping (-s) Contact network hosts by sending Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) request and

reply datagrams.

pkgchk Check file integrity and accuracy of installation

pkginfo -l Will give you a description of all the packages (w/o pkg name) or one package (w pkg name)

prtdiag Display system configuration and diagnostic information (/usr/platform/ \’uname -m\’/sbin)

prtconf -v Get system device information from POST probe

prtconf -vp Device tree info and PROM version (OBP)

prtvtoc List the vtoc (disk label) of a disk drive ex: prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0s0

psrinfo -v Will give you processor information

prsadm – f (-n) – f Will allow you to offline a processor. – n will online a specified processor

/usr/ucb/ps -aux Lists processes in CP utilization desending order.

pwck Checks the password file for inconsistencies

sar Analyse system performance information (must be initialized in /etc/init.d/perf)

showrev -p List currently installed patches; patchadd -p in solaris 2.6 and above

snoop (-s) Display and analyse network traffic

strings Search object and binaryfiles for ASCII strings

sysdef Analyse device and software configuration information.

swap Add, delete and monitor system swap areas

sum Calculate and print a checksum value for a named file

sys-unconfig Enables you to change information entered during sysidtool phase of installation

tail -f Leave file open for reading and display what is there

tic Terminfo compiler; translates a terminfo file from source to compiled format

timex List runtime and system activity information during command execution

traceroute Show the route followed by packet transfered in a subnet environment

truss Trace system calls issued and used by a program or command

tunefs Modify file system parameters that affect layout policies

uname Print platform, architecture, operating system, and system node information.

vmstat Analyse memory performance statistics

who am i Display the effective current user name, terminal line and login time

xhost hostname allows graphical access to your host from the host specified in hostname

Diagnostic files

/etc/defaultdomain Name of the current domain, read and set at each boot by script /etc/init.d/inetinit

/etc/default/cron Determine logging activity for the cron daemon through specificationof the cronlog


/etc/default/login Control root logins at the console through specification of the console varible and other


/etc/default/su Determine /etc/hostname.le0 logging activity for the su command thru specification of

the sulog variable

/etc/dfs/dfstab List what distributed file systems will be shared at boot time

/etc/dfs/sharetab List currently shared NFS file systems

/etc/hosts Host file linked to /etc/inet/hosts

/etc/hostname.le0 Assign a system name, and through cross-referencing the /etc/hosts file, add an IP address

/etc/hostname.hme0 to a particular network interface

/etc/inetd.conf List information for network services that can be invoked by the inetd daemon

/etc/inittab Read by init daemon at startup to determine which rc script to execute; also contains

default run level.

/etc/minor_perm Specifies permissions to be assigned to device files

/etc/mnttab Display a list of currently mounted file systems

/etc/name_to_major Display a list of configured major device numbers.

/etc/netconfig Display the network configuration database read durring network initializeation and use

/etc/nsswitch.conf List the database configuration file for the name service switch engine.

/etc/path_to_inst List the contentents of the system device tree using the format of a physical device names

and instance numbers

/etc/protocols List known protocols used in conjunction with internet

/etc/release O/S release and date

/etc/rmtab List the current remotely mounted file systems

/etc/rpc List available RPC programs

/etc/services List the well-known networking services and associated port numbers; maintained by NIC

/etc/system Tunable Kernel parameters boot -a will boot w/o an /etc/system file

/etc/vfstab List local and remote filesystems mounted at boot time.

/var/adm/messages Lists resent console window and boot messages

/var/adm/sulog Display a record for each invocation of the su command

/var/adm/utmpx List user and accounting information for the who and login commands

/var/adm/wtmpx Maintain history of user information for the accounting packageand report facility.

/var/crash/hostname Crash files, unix is the symbol lookup file, vmcore is the core dump, bounds is incremental value for next core set.

/var/lp/log List print services activity

/var/sadm/install/contents List installed software packages

/var/sadm/install_data/install_log A listing of the way the install was completed

/var/sadm/pkg patch and package information (new O/Ss)

/var/sadm/patch patch and package information (old O/Ss)

/var/sadm/system/admin/INST_RELEASE List of clusters installed on the system.

/var/saf/_log List activity of the Service Access Facility (SAF)

/var/spool/locks/lck clean up to clear bad tip session (will get error- all ports busy)

Memory Scrubbing

On Ultra Enterprise (sun4u) platforms ECC is generated and checked by the UPA devices

(CPU, SYSIO and PSYCHO), not by the memory controller (Address Controller or AC).

Thus, ECC covers the entire data path between devices and memory.

***This means that an ECC error can be reported against a memory (DIMM/SIMM) that might not be bad ***

For a few ECC errors one may not recommend DIMM/SIMM replacement however in the case when

the errors are exactly 12 hours apart the DIMM/SIMM must be replaced. Memory scrubber runs every

12 hours after the system is booted. The purpose of scanning physical memory is to read each memory

location and determine if the data and ECC are correct. If the data does not match ECC, ECC will be

rerun and correction made to memory content. If it fails exactly 12 hours apart it means the error

appeared again despite of the correction, it will be corrected again however the DIMM/SIMM must be replaced.

check to see if memory scrubbing is enabled do:

# echo disable_memscrub\\ /X | adb -k

physmem 3b7b


disable_memscrub: 0

if it is \"0\" it is enabled

if it is \"1\" it is disabled

SunFire forgotten password: (SRDB 26846) This procedure works with firmware version 5.11.3 and higher.

If the platform administrator\’s password is lost, the following procedure can be used to

clear the password.

1. Reboot the System Controller (SC). You won\’t be able to do this by logging into the platform shell.

You\’ll need to hit the reset button on the SC to do this.

2. The normal sequence of a System Controller rebooting is for SCPOST to run, then ScApp. You\’ll need

to wait for ScApp to start loading, then hit Control-A to spawn a vxWorks shell. SCPOST is done running

when you see the message \’POST Complete\’. At this point, ScApp will begin to load. When you see

the copyright message \’Copyright 2001 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All rights reserved.\’, Hit CONTROL-A.

You should see the following:

Task not found

spawning new shell.


This last line is the vxWorks prompt. Keep in mind, that ScApp will still continue to load all the way

to the point of giving you the menu to enter the platform/domain shells. To make it less confusing,

wait for the ScApp menu to display on your screen, then hit return. You should see the

vxWorks prompt -> again.

3. Make a note of the current boot flags settings. This will be used to restore the boot flags to the original value.

-> getBootFlags()

value = 48 = 0xC = \’0\’ (Save the 0x number for # 8 below.)

4. Change the boot flags to disable autoboot.

-> setBootFlags (0x10)

5. Reboot the System Controller (CONTROL-X or reboot ). Once reset, it will stop at the -> prompt.

6. If you are running firmware 5.17.x or above, enter the following commands, otherwise, go to step 7:

-> ld 1,0,\"/sc/flash/vxAddOn.o\"

If you are running firmware 5.17.x or 5.18.x, enter the following command at the prompt

-> uncompressJVM(\"/sc/flash/\", \"/sc/flash/JVM\");

7. Enter the following commands at the -> prompt.

-> kernelTimeSlice 5

-> javaConfig

-> javaClassPathSet \"/sc/flash/lib/scapp.jar:/sc/flash/lib/jdmkrt.jar\"

-> javaLoadLibraryPathSet \"/sc/flash\"

-> java \"-Djava.compiler=NONE -Dline.separator=\\r\\n sun.serengeti.cli.Password\"

Wait for the following System Controller messages to display. Your prompt will come back right away,

but it\’ll take about 10 seconds for these messages to show up:

Clearing SC Platform password…

Done. Reboot System Controller.

8. After the above messages are displayed, restore the bootflags to the original value using the

setBootFlags() command.

-> setBootFlags (0xC) (Use the value returned from #3 above. )

9. Reboot the System Controller using CONTROL-X or the reboot command. Once rebooted,

the platform administrator\’s password will be cleared.

Mounting and unmounting CD without vold

to stop vold : (automount daemon for cdrom and floppy)

# /etc/init.d/volmgt stop

to mount cdrom:

# mount -F hsfs -o ro /dev/dsk/c0t6d0s0 /cdrom

to unmount cdrom:

# umount /cdrom

to start vold :

# /etc/init.d/volmgt start

Explorer Scripts

New Version:

The new version of explorer can be found on Sunsolve under \"navigation – diagnostic tools\"

It is now a software package (SUNWexplo) and can be installed and run (initially) with the

pkgadd – d command.

To expand: # zcat SUNWexplo.tar.z | tar xvf –

to install: # pkgadd – d . SUNWexplo

Once the package is installed explorer can be run from /opt/SUNWexplo/bin/explorer.

Old Version:

The following is documentation sent out with the explorer script. It contains information

on how to expand, run and mail the output from the explorer.

1. #su root

2. Save the explorer.tar.Z file in directory where root has write permission

for encoded files :

#uudecode filename

#zcat explorer.tar.Z | tar xvf –



-While executing this script, you will be prompted to enter information about your site.

– If you have internet access, we ask that you enter \"y\" to the question Would you like

to e-mail results [y/n]\" so that we get the output automatically.

– If you choose not to e-mail the explorer file automatically, please send the resulting file

(*.uu) as an attachment to your PTAS account manager.

Explorer in CRON (for this example, explorer will reside in /usr/tmp)

**** Do steps 1-3 above

1. # copy file \’explorer.template\’ to another file (ie: file_name)

2. # chmod 755 file_name

3. Edit file_name and fill in the appropiate lines.

4. Edit the root crontab file using the \’crontab -e\’ command and make an entry

similar to the following:

00 23 1 * * cd /usr/tmp; /usr/bin/zcat explorer.tar.Z | /usr/bin/tar xvf – ; /usr/tmp/explorer -file

/usr/tmp/file_name -mail

5. If you choose not to email the explorer file automatically (-mail option)

please send the resulting file (*.uu) as an attachment to your PTAS Account


Note: if crontab -e does not work correctly, try setting the following variable

5. If you choose not to email the explorer file automatically (-mail option)

please send the resulting file (*.uu) as an attachment to your PTAS Account


Note: if crontab -e does not work correctly, try setting the following variable

\’setenv EDITOR vi\’

To veiw the explorer output file

run uudecode on the *.uu file (this will create a host_id.tar.z file)

run gunzip on the tar.z file (this will create a host_id.tar file)

run tar -xvf on the .tar file (this will expand the file to the explorer output


Performance Analysis

Tools: (commands)

timex reports system activity for the execution of a single command

-o reports I/O transfers

-s reports sar activity during command

-h reports \’hog factor\’

ex: # timex ps -ef (will tell you the amount of time the ps command took to


top display and update information about the top cpu processes

ex: # top 20 (will give you stats on the top 20 processes default is 10)

vmstat reports Virtual memory statistics

ex: # vmstat 15 2 (will collect and report virtual memory stats for 15 intervals of

2 seconds)

iostat reports I/O statistics

ex: # iostat 60 3 (will collect and report I/O statistics for 3 60 second intervals)

disk thruput test: ( from infodoc 21931)

for write performance: (this will write over data. do not use if data is needed on this disk)

# dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/rdsk/cxtxdxs2 bs=1024k

for read performance:

# dd if=/dev/rdsk/cxtxdxs2 of=/dev/null bs=1024k

# iostat -pxn 5

mpstat Reports processor statistics per processor

ex: # mpstat 30 2 (will collect and report proc stats for 30 intervals of 2 seconds)

sar reports overall system activity

-u CPU usage data

-q average length of run queue

-r collect paging data

ex: sar -u 60 30 (will collect cpu data for 30 intervals of 60 seconds each)

sar -q 60 30 (will collect run queue data for 30 intervals of 60 seconds each)

sar -r 60 30 (will collect paging data for 30 intervals of 60 seconds each)

w reports on current system activity per user

tar Copies and Archives files

-c create (backup)

-v verbose (details)

-f device

-t table of contents (list)

-x extract

-p restore to original mode

-h follow symbolic link

-d access special files

ex: tar -cvf /dev/rmt/0 /usr (backup /usr to tape /rmt/0)

tar -xvf /dev/rmt/0 /usr (restores /usr from tape /rmt/0)

tar -tvf /dev/rmt/0 (lists the contents of tape /rmt/0)

zcat file_name.tar.Z | tar xvf – (expand a tar.Z file)

cpio copies and archives files

-o output

-v verbose

-i input

-t list

-d create directories

-m retain modification time

ex: # cpio -ov /usr /dev/rmt/0 (copies /usr to /dev/rmt/0)

cpio -itv < /dev/rmt/0 (list the contents of /dev/rmt/0) cpio -idmv < /dev/rmt/0 (restores /dev/rmt/0) dd Device to device copy ex: # dd if=ascii_file of=ebcid_file conv=ebcidic (converts an ascii file to ebcidic) # dd if=/dev/rmt/0 of=/dev/rmt/1 (copies from rmt/0 to rmt/1) # dd if=/dev/rdsk/c0t0d0s2 of=/dev/rdsk/c1t0d0s2 bs=512000 (for an quick copy of c0t0d0 on c1t0d0) Uncompressing Files: What to use to uncompress files: Use the \'file (file_name)\' command to determine what type of compression was used. Ex: # file 2.6_x86_Recommended.tar.gz 2.6_x86_Recommended.tar.gz: gzip compressed data - deflate method , original file name *.tar.Z files use the \'zcat (file_name.tar.Z) | tar xvf -\' command Ex: # zcat explorer.v.3.1.0.tar.Z | tar xvf - *.tar.gz files use the \'gzcat (file_name.tar.gz) | tar xvf -\' command Ex: # gzcat 2.6_x86_Recommended.tar.gz | tar xvf - you can also use the \'gunzip\' command but that will result in a *.tar file and you will have to use the \'tar - xvf (file_name.tar)\' command to expand it *.tar.z files copy to *.tar.Z and use zcat (see above) *.zip files use the \'unzip (\' command Ex: # unzip *.tar files use the \'tar -xvf (file_name.tar)\' command Ex: # tar -xvf 2.6_x86_Recommended.tar *****zcat can be found on most versions of Solaris in /usr/bin****** gzcat can be found on the web and Sunsolve CD gunzip or gzunzip can be found in /usr/dist/exe on the corporate network tar can be found on most versions of Solaris in /usr/bin unzip can be found in /usr/dist/local/exe on the corporate network ****NOTE: It is a good idea (due to the locations of these commands) to have them on a floppy or CD that you can bring on-site. ***** Swap /usr/sbin/swap -a /sbin/swapon -a add swap space /usr/sbin/swap -l /usr/bin/free lists swap info vmstat vmstat virtual memory statistics System Files /etc/vfstab /etc/fstab filesystem default info /etc/inet/hosts /etc/hosts network hosts file Solaris Linux Description Backups ufsdump backs up all files specified by files_to_dump (normally either a whole file system or files within a file system changed after a certain date) to magnetic tape, diskette, or disk file. Filesystems to be backed up must be inactive (unmounted or single user mode) 0-9 dump level, 0 is full dump. It is relative to what has been backed up. If a level 2 was done then level 4 backup was done the next day. If the next day you did a level 5 all modified files since level 4 would be backed up.... If instead you did a level 3 backup all modified files since the level 2 would be backed up. c cartridge. Sets the defaults for cartridge instead of the standard half-inch reel. f Dump file. Use dump_file as the file to dump to, instead of /dev/rmt/0. If dump_file is specified as -, dump to standard output. u update the dump record. Add an entry to the file /etc/dumpdates. v verify. After each tape or diskette is written, verify the contents of the media against the source file system. ex: # ufsdump 0cfu /dev/rmt/0 /dev/rdsk/c0t3d0s0 (full dump of a root file system on c0t3d0 on cartridge tape unit 0) # usfdump 0uf /dev/rmt/0 /usr (dump the /usr filesystem to tape) # ufsdump 5fuv /dev/rmt/1 /dev/rdsk/c0t3d0s6 (make and verify an incremental dump at level 5 of the /usr partition of c0t3d0, on tape unit 1 ufsrestore ufsrestore utility restores files from backup media created with the ufsdump command. i Interactive. After reading in the directory information from the media, ufsrestore invokes an interactive interface that allows you to browse through the dump file\'s directory hierarchy and select individual files to be extracted. Valid commands are ls, cd, add, verbose, delete, extract, quit r Recursive. Restore the entire contents of the media into the current directory (which should be the top-level of the file system). To completely restore a file system, use this function letter to restore the level 0 dump, and again for each incremental dump. t Table of contents. List each filename that appears on the media. If no filename argument is given, the root directory is listed. x Extract the named files from the media. If a named file matches a directory whose contents were written onto the media, and the h modifier is not in effect, the directory is recursively extracted f Use dump_file instead of /dev/rmt/0 as the file to restore from. Typically dump_file specifies a tape or diskette drive. ex: # ufsrestore tvf /dev/rmt/0 (list tape contents of /dev/rmt/0) # ufsrestore rvf /dev/rmt/0 (restore contents of tape /dev/rmt/0 to the current directory you are in) # ufsrestore ivf /dev/rmt/0 (interactive restore of tape /rmt/0) raidctl: solaris command ( V440 hardware raid command, mirror within controler only) raidctl -h Help text, no man pages raidctl -c Create mirror (note: raid volume will use original disks ctd#) ex: raidctl -c c1t1d0 c1t2d0 raidctl -d Delete mirror ex: raidctl -d c1t1d0 raidctl [-f] Update controler firmware ex: raidctl -F image 1 raidctl -l List raid controller status ex: raidctl -l 1 SEVM - How to recover a primary boot disk. (info doc 14820) NOTE: This document was written for VxVM 2.x. New functionality in VxVM 3.x renders many of the \"extra steps\" in replacing a primary root disk obsolete. See the comments interspersed below regarding steps when using VxVM 3.x. If Volume Manager (VxVM) is running on a system with the root disk encapsulated and mirrored, and the root disk fails, the system stays up and running, due to the fact that it is mirrored, but how can you recover the original root disk? First, some terminology: The \'primary\' root disk is the system disk on which the OS was originally installed. This disk was \"encapsulated\" into VxVM and then mirrored. Since this disk is encapsulated, there is a direct mapping of partitions onto volumes for /, swap, /usr, and /var. The \'secondary\' root disk is a disk which was first initialized into VxVM and then used to form a mirror for the primary root disk. VxVM 2.x: Since it was initialized, rather than encapsulated, there is no mapping of partitions onto the volumes /, swap, /usr, and /var. VxVM 3.x: When the mirror of the root disk is created, the mapping of partitions onto the volumes /, swap, /usr, and /var is maintained. RECOVERING THE \'SECONDARY\' BOOT DISK: If the \'secondary\' system disk fails, the replacement of the disk is straightforward. It is handled in the same manner that any other failed drive needs to be replaced. The easiest way to do this is to run \'vxdiskadm\' and choose option #4 (Remove a disk for replacement). Then, shut down the system (if necessary) to physically replace the disk, and reboot. Run \'vxdiskadm\' again, this time choosing option #5 (Replace a failed or removed disk). When asked to \'encapsulate\' the disk, reply \"no\", and then reply \"yes\" when asked if you wish to initialize it. This will begin recovery of the disk and the mirrors will resync automatically. RECOVERING THE \'PRIMARY\' BOOT DISK: NOTE: If you are running Volume Manager version 3.x.x or above, it is not necessary to follow the steps below. Instead, the process for replacing the \'primary\' boot disk is EXACTLY the same as that for the \'secondary\' boot disk, which is shown above. The reason for this is because Volume Manager 3.x automatically creates the underlying \"hard\" partitions for /usr and /var on the replacement disk, whereas older versions did not. Veritas Volume Manager : Volume Manager takes physical disks and allows you to create logical volumes across these disks. A group of physical disks is called a \'disk group\' All or portions of these physical disks can be combined to create logical \'volumes\' You then can create filesystems on these logical volumes that span multiple physical disks. Veritas Volumes have 2 partitions on them, a public and a private region. The public region is the size of the whole physical disk The private region is 1024 sectors long. The configuration database is located in this region. There is enough room in the private region to define 128 disks. The private region is usually located at the beginning of a disk And is usually slice # 3. If you run # prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/c#t#d#s2 on a disk initialized under vm (#vxdisksetup - i c#t#d#) a \'15\' in the Tag column output indicates the private region a \'14\' in the Tag column output indicates the public region Rules: - There must be a rootdg, for vxvm to come up at boot. This is usually made when you install vxinstall volume manager and encapsulate your boot disk. Although you do not have to encapsulate the boot disk, rootdg can be made up any disk. - You must have 2 unassigned slices to encapsulate a disk. (public and private regions) - vxunroot will unencapsulate a volume only if /, swap, /usr, /var, and /opt are the only filesystems on the encapsulated disk. General the flow of building logical volumes, creating a filesystem and mounting it, is as follows: 1. assign physical disks to free disk pool (to use with volume manager) # vxdisksetup - i c#t#d# c#t#d# (ect...) 2. create a disk group (uses disks in the free disk pool. You assign names. nconfig is private db copies, default is 4 and nlogs kernel logs, both switches are optional) # vxdg init diskgrp_name disk_name=cxtxdx nconfig=# nlog=# 3. add disks from the free disk pool to the diskgroup # vxvg - g diskgrp_name adddisk disk_name=cxtxdx disk_name=cxtxdx (ect...) 4. Create a logival volume in your disk group mirror # vxassist -g diskgrp_name -U fsgen make vol_name size layout=stripe nstripe=# disk_name disk_name (ect..) (ex: 100m) raid5 {nolog} 5. mirror a striped or concat logical volume (optional) # vxassist -g diskgrp_name mirror vol_name disk_name disk_name disk_name (ect..) 6. start the volume #vxvol start vol_name 7. Make the filesystem that sits on the logical volume # newfs /dev/vx/rdsk/ diskgrp_name/ vol_name General the flow of building logical volumes, creating a filesystem and mounting it, is as follows: 8. create a mount point (you decide dir_name) # mkdir /dir_name 9. Mount the filesystem on the mount point # mount /dev/vx/dsk/ diskgrp_name/ vol_name /dir_name Break a mirror and unencapsulate: # vxprint - htg rootdg (get the names of mirror plexes) # vxplex - g rootdg - o rm dis rootvol-02 swapvol-02 (use pl names from vxprint) # vxunroot (this will ask for a re-boot when completed) (you can use vxdiskadm to re-encapsulate) Break a mirror and take the plex to make another volume: # vxprint - htg dg_name (find plex name of mirror volume you want to use) # vxplex - g dg_name dis plex_name (dissociate plex with volume) #vxmake - g dg_name - U fsgen vol vol_name plex=plex_name (make the volume) #mkdir /mp_name (create a mount point) #vxvol - g dg_name start vol_name (start the newly created volume) #mount /dev/vx/dsk/dg_name/vol_name /mp_name To boot without Volume manager: rem out \'vxio\' lines in /etc/system (usually 2 lines at the end of vm section) copy /etc/vfstab to /etc/vfstab.vm copy /etc/vfstab.prevm to /etc/vfstab touch /etc/vx/reconfig.d/state.d/install-db reboot (to reverse) uncomment \'vxio\' lines in the /etc/system file (on both disks if root was mirrored) copy /etc/vfstab.vm to /etc/vfstab (on both disks if root was mirrored) rm /etc/vx/reconfig.d/state.d/install-db reboot Deport and Import a disk group: # vxdg list (get a list of disk groups) # vxdg deport dg_name # vxdg import dg_name (can use - n name or - s for shared or - t for temporary optional switches) Remove a volume from Volume Manager: # umount / vol_name or (filesystem that sits on volume) # vxvol - g dg_name stop vol_name (stop the volume) # vxedit - g dg_name - r rm vol_name (recursivly removes volume, plex, and sub-disk from vm) Volume Manager commands: #vxdg free how much free space in a diskgroup: vxdg - g dg_name free #vxdg list list all imported disk groups (exported use: vxdisk - s list | grep dgname) #vxdg init Creates a disk group: vxdg init dg_name disk_name=c#t#d# #vxdg adddisk Add disk to dg: vxdg - g dg_name adddisk disk_name=cxtxdx #vxdg rmdisk Remove disk from dg: vxdg - g dg_name rmdisk disk_name #vxdg upgrade Upgrade dg after VM upgrade: vxdg upgrade dg_name #vxdg deport deport a dg: vxdg deport dg_name #vxdg import import a dg: vxdg import dg_name #vxassist make makes a logical volume: mirror #vxassist -g diskgrp_name -U fsgen make vol_name size layout=stripe nstripe=# disk_name disk_name (ect. raid5 #vxassist maxsize what is the max size raid you can make in a disk group: mirror #vxassist - g dg_name maxsize layout=stripe nstripe=# raid5 #vxassist mirror mirror a stripe or concat vol :vxassist - g dg_name vol_name disk_name(s) vxassist remove mirror Used to remove a mirror permenemtly (do not use to break mirror) #vxassist - g dg_name remove mirror vol_name #vxplex used to attach and dissociate plex(es) with volumes: #vxplex att vol_name plex_name or vxplex - o rm dis vol_name #vxdisk - s list | grep dgname Gives you a listing of all disk groups #vxdisksetup - i used to add a disk to the volume manager free disk pool: vxdisksetup - i c#t#d# #vxdiskunsetup - C used to remove a disk from the free disk pool: vxdiskunsetup - C c#t#d# #vxdiskadd will do both the vxdisksetup and vxdg adddisk: vxdiskadd c#t#d# #vxvol start start a volume after it was made with vxassist or vxmake: vxvol start vol_name #vxvol stop used to stop a volume after a umount: vxvol stop vol_name #vxedit - r rm allows you to recursivly remove a volume, plex or subdisk: vxedit - r rm vol_name plex_name #vxmake sd manually make a sub-disk: vxmake sd sd_name offset=# len=size disk=disk_name #vxmake plex manually make a plex from a sub disk: vxmake plex plex_name sd=sd_name #vxmake vol manually make a volume from a plex: vxmake - U fsgen vol vol_name plex=plex_name #vxunroot unencapsulates a disk: vxunroot disk_name #vxdiskadm menu driven disk adminiatration #vxio set set the number of vxio deamons (default is 10. 2/cpu is recommended) : vxio set # permently set daemons in the s85vxvm-startup2 file. Volume Manager files: /etc/vx/bin:/opt/VRTSvmsa/bin:. Set PATH to: /etc/vx/reconfig.d/state.d/install-db Touch this file to prevent Volume manager from starting /etc/vx/reconfig.d/disk.d/cxtxdx /var/opt/vmsa/logs/commands all GUI commands are located here /etc/vfstab.prevm Copy of the vfstab before vm was installed /opt/VRTS/bin/vea GUI for version 3.5 Solaris 9 SVM (sds) disk replacement: (also see infodoc ID73132 ) Beginning with Solaris 9, SVM uses a new feature called Device-ID which identifies each disk not only by it\'s c#t#d# name, but by a unique ID generated by the disk\'s WWN or serial number. Mirrored disk replacement: (use when submirror “ State: Needs maintenance” in metastat cmd) On failing disk: (If you can access the disk, if not start at the cfgadm -c unconfigure step) # umount filesystem (unmount any non-svm open filesystems on failed disk) # metadb -d c1t0d0s7 (if replicas on this disk, remove them) # metadb | grep c1t0d0s0 (verify there are no existing replicas left on the disk) # cfgadm -c unconfigure c1::dsk/c1t0d0 (might not complete command if busy, remove failed disk) Insert a new disk : # cfgadm -c configure c1::dsk/c1t0d0 (configure new disk) # prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0s2 > /tmp/firstdisk (get format for new disk)

# fmthard -s /tmp/firstdisk /dev/rdsk/c1t0d0s2 (format disk same as mirror)

# metadevadm -u c1t0d0 (will update the New DevID)

# metadb -a c1t0d0s7 (if necessary, recreate any replicas)

# metareplace -e d0 c1t0d0s0 (do this for each submirror on the disk)

# metastat -i (will change unavailable state of devices to Okay)

Raid-5 disk replacement: (use when raid unit “ State: Needs maintenance” in metastat cmd)

On failing disk:(If you can access the disk, if not start at the cfgadm -c unconfigure step)

# umount filesystem (unmount any open non-svm filesystems on this disk)

# metadb -d c1t0d0s7 (any replicas on this disk, remove them)

# metadb | grep c1t0d0 (verify there are no existing replicas left on the disk)

# cfgadm -c unconfigure c1::dsk/c1t0d0 (might not complete command if busy, remove the failed disk)

Insert a new disk :

# cfgadm -c configure c1::dsk/c1t0d0

Run \’format\’ or \’prtvtoc\’ to put the desired partition table on the new disk

# metadevadm -u c1t0d0 (will update the New DevID)

# metadb -a c1t0d0s7 (if necessary, recreate any replicas)

# metareplace -e c1t0d0s0 (do this for each raid on the disk)

# metastat -i (will change unavailable state of devices to Okay)

SDS – How to mirror the root disk

Use this procedure to mirror the system disk partitions using Solstice DiskSuite:

– first format the second disk exactly like the original root disk: (typically s7 is reserved for metadatabase)

# prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0s2 > /tmp/firstdisk

# fmthard -s /tmp/firstdisk /dev/rdsk/c1t0d0s2

– create at least 3 state database replicas on unused (10mb) slices.

# metadb -a -f -c 3 c0t0d0s7 c1t0d0s7 (-a and -f options create the initial state database replicas. -c 3

puts three state database replicas on each specified slice)

– for each slice, you must create 3 new metadevices: one for the existing slice, one for the slice on the

mirrored disk, and one for the mirror. To do this, make the appropriate entries in the file.

slice 0, create the following entries in (/etc/lvm/

d10 1 1 /dev/dsk/c0t0d0s0

d20 1 1 /dev/dsk/c1t0d0s0

d0 -m d10

slice 1, create the following entries in (/etc/lvm/

d11 1 1 /dev/dsk/c0t0d0s1

d21 1 1 /dev/dsk/c1t0d0s1

d1 -m d11

Follow this example, creating groups of 3 entries for each data slice on the root disk.

– run the metainit command to create all the metadevices you have just defined in the file.

If you use the -a option, all the metadevices defined in the will be created.

# metainit -a -f (-f is required because the slices on the root disk are currently mounted)

– make a backup copy of the vfstab file: # cp /etc/vfstab /etc/vfstab.pre_sds

– run the metaroot command for the metadevice you designated for the root mirror. In the example

above, we created d0 to be the mirror device for the root partition, so we would run:

# metaroot d0

– edit the /etc/vfstab file to change each slice to the appropriate metadevice. \’metaroot\’ command has already

done this for you for the root slice.

/dev/dsk/c0t0d0s1 – – swap – no –


/dev/md/dsk/d1 – – swap – no –

Make sure that you change the slice to the main mirror, d1 not to the simple submirror, d11.

– reboot the system. Do not proceed without rebooting your system, or data corruption will occur.

– After the system has rebooted, you can verify that root and other slices are under DiskSuite\’s control:

# df -k

# swap -l

The outputs of these commands should reflect the metadevice names, not the slice names.

– Last, attach the second submirror to the metamirror device.

# metattach d0 d20 (must be done for each partition on the disk, and will start the syncing of data)

– to follow the progress of this syncing for this mirror, enter the command

# metastat d0

Although you can run all the metattach commands one right after another, it is a good idea to run the next

metattach command only after the first syncing has completed. Once you have attached all the submirrors

to the metamirrors, and all the syncing has completed, your root disk is mirrored.

ALOM: (\’#.\’ to enter, default login admin admin1)

poweron power on server, fru. Turns off ok-2-remove led

poweroff power off server

removefru will move a FRU into a state whereby it is ready to be removed

reset resets the managed system

break causes the SC to send a break to the managed system OS

bootmode provides control over the OBP firmware behavior during system initialization

console connect this user session to the managed system\’s OS console stream #. to return

consolehistory displays the contents of the selected OS console output buffer

showlogs displays the contents of the managed system eventlog

setlocator cause SC to turn the managed system locator indicator on or off

showlocator display the managed system locator indicator current state

showenvironment displays the environmental status to the SC for the managed system.

Showfru prints out the FRUID data stored in the FRU PROM

showplatform displays the hardware configuration of the platform

showsc displays the details of the SC software configuration and firmware version information.

shownetwork displays the current SC network configuration parameters

setsc allows the user to individually configure SC parameters

setupsc interactivly configures the SC parameters

showdate displays the current SC date and time

setdate allows the user to set the current SC date and time

resetsc resets the SC

flashupdate download a new firmware image to the active SC

setdefaults set all the user settable SC configuration parameters to their default value

useradd add a new user to the SCs user database

userdel remove an existing user from the SCs user database

usershow displays the configuration details for a user account, or all accounts (w/o argument)

userpassword allows an administrator to set/change a users password

userperm sets the permissions for the specified user

password allows a user to change their own login password

showusers display a list of users currently logged into the SC

logout logs the current user out from his alom session

New ALOM commands:

showfaults Prints any faults Environmental faults, faulty FRUs, POST-detected faults, which result in ASR-disable

FMA-detected faults, prints the time and status of the last POST run.

clearfault to manually clear an FMA-diagnosed fault. (get UUID from showfaults output)

Galaxy ILOM: (default login/password root/changeme)

ILOM (Integrated Lights Out Manager) (Motorola MPC8248 Service Processor):

Provides RKVMS functionality (Remote Keyboard, Video, Mouse and Storage. Default is not enabled for LAN.)

Provides ability to boot from virtual devices.

CLI through serial connection or SSH.

Environmental monitoring (voltage, fan speeds, temperatures, etc. and will send alert messages.)

Allows for LOM.

Embedded Web Server w/ SSL encryption. (connect to web GUI by: https://ipaddress)

Flash memory for built-in Linux OS.

Connects to all components via JTAG connection.

IPMI v2.0 command interface

SNMP v1, v2c and v3 interface.

CLI, Web GUI or ILOM Remote Console to manage.

To Power on:

To turn on main power mode (all components powered on), press and release the small Power button on the server

front panel. When main power is applied to the full server, the Power/OK LED next to the Power button lights and

remains lit.


(Connect a serial cable from the RJ-45 Serial Mgt port on your ILOM SP to laptop)

-> start /SYS

To Power off: press and release the small Power button on the server front panel

or -> stop /SYS

Configuring the SP: (Serial Port default: 9600/8/1/none )

cd /SP/network

set /SP/network pendingipaddress=

set /SP/network pendingipnetmask=

set /SP/network pendingipgateway=

set commitpending=true

show /SP/network

To start the serial console: (Connect a serial cable from the RJ-45 Serial Mgt port on your ILOM SP to laptop)

-> cd /SP/console

`esc ( ` to return to SP


eeprom default is screen and keyboard. Use solaris eeprom command to

get serial console in solaris (ssh to host or see remote console below)

eeprom input-device=ttya

eeprom output-device=ttya

BIOS: You need to change the BIOS setting to have serial port control

after POST. (this will not override the eeprom setting in solaris)

to change setting:

F2 (ctl-E) on reset, Advanced, Remote access Configuration,

Redirect after POST [always]

(Some OSs may not work if set to always)



See Sun Fire X4100 and X4200 Servers System Management Guide for guidance on

CLI commands.

cd Navigate the object namespace.

create Set up an object in the namespace

delete Remove an object from the namespace.

exit Terminate a session to the CLI.

help Displays help information about commands and targets.

load Transfers a file from an indicated source to an indicated target.

reset Resets the state of the target.

set Sets target properties to the specified value.

show Displays information about targets and properties.

Forgotten password ALOM4v : Niagra Ontario, Erie

1.Connect to the ALOM serial port

2. Power cycle the server by unplugging both PSU cords and re-plugging

3. Hit \"esc\", the Escape key, during ALOM boot at the point: Return to Boot Monitor for Handshake

4.After hitting \"esc\", the ALOM boot escape menu will be printed:


e – Erase ALOM NVRAM. m – Run POST Menu.

R – Reset ALOM. r – Return to bootmon. Your selection:

Enter \"e\" to erase the ALOM NVRAM and then \’r\’ to resume ALOM boot. ALOM will now boot and reset

all NVRAM settings. You will automatically be logged on as user \’admin\’ with no password and

no permissions, and all ALOM NVRAM settings will be reset to the factory defaults.

Finding Solaris release and distribution loaded

# more /etc/release (to find the Solaris version loaded)

# more /var/sadm/system/admin/CLUSTER (to find the distribution loaded)

SUNWCXall – Full Distribution + OEM Support

SUNWCall – Full Distribution

SUNWCprog – Developer

SUNWCuser – End User

SUNWCreq – Core


/usr/sbin/pkgadd /bin/rpm -i[U]vh add software pkg

/usr/sbin/pkginfo /bin/rpm -qa displays software pkg info

/usr/sbin/pkgrm /bin/rpm -e removes software pk

Disk Formatting

/usr/sbin/format /sbin/mke2fs creates partition

Disk Partitioning/info

/usr/sbin/format /sbin/fdisk creates partition

/usr/sbin/format /sbin/fdisk -l lists partition info

Disk Space and Information

/usr/sbin/df /bin/df displays mounted file systems

/usr/sbin/df -k /bin/df -k displays disk space of file systems

/usr/sbin/mount /bin/mount mounts a file system

/usr/bin/du /usr/bin/du displays disk usage

Log Files

/var/adm/messages /var/log/messages system Log file


/usr/ucb/whoami /usr/bin/whoami displays current user name

/usr/bin/fdformat /usr/bin/fdformat floppy disk format

/usr/bin/tip /usr/bin/minicom terminal connect thru serial port

/usr/bin/find /usr/bin/locate find a file

/usr/bin/who -r /sbin/runlevel displays current run level

Solaris to Linux cross-reference: ( and Linux overview for Solaris users 817-3341-10)

Solaris Linux Description

System Administration Tools

/usr/bin/admintool /bin/linuxconf system administration tasks

/usr/sbin/useradd /usr/sbin/useradd adds a new user

Kernel Configuration

/etc/system /usr/src/linux


/usr/bin/ps -ef /bin/ps -ef active processes

/bin/truss /usr/bin/strace trace of the system

/usr/ucb/users /usr/bin/users users currently on the system

/usr/ucb/ps -aux /bin/ps -aux active processes sorted by %cpu

/usr/bin/prstat /usr/bin/top active processes, reports statistics

Physical Memory

/usr/sbin/dmesg | grep mem grep MemTotal /proc/meminfo memory size

Hardware Status/Information

/usr/bin/dmesg /bin/dmesg system buffer diagnostic messages

/usr/bin/arch -k /bin/uname -m application architecture of host system


/usr/sbin/showmount /sbin/showmount clients that remotely mounted a filesystem

/etc/dfs/dfstab /etc/exports sharing resources

/usr/sbin/route /sbin/route manipulate the routing tables

/usr/bin/netstat /bin/netstat show network status

/usr/sbin/ifconfig /sbin/ifconfig configure network interface parameters

/usr/sbin/snoop /usr/sbin/tcpdump displays network packets and their contents


/usr/bin/cpio /bin/cpio copy files

/usr/sbin/tar /sbin/tar copy files

Host ID

/usr/bin/hostid /usr/bin/hostid lists host id


/usr/bin/hostname /bin/hostname lists hostname

/usr/bin/uname -a /bin/uname -a lists hostname

The X Window System

/usr/openwin/bin/xterm /usr/X11R6/bin/xterm terminal emulator for x windows

/usr/openwin/bin/xhost /usr/X11R6/bin/xhost allowed connections to the X server

FTPing to and from sunsolve

You can use this to temporarily store files that you may want to access at a customers site or to

send files from a customer site that you can retreive on swan.

Anything sent to sunsolve will be deleted after two days

Internal to sunsolve:

(change to directory where the file you want to send resides)

# rftp

Name : anonymous or suncore

Password: (enter your e-mail address or suncore passwd changes weekly check url:)

ftp> cd cores

ftp> mkdir dir_name (as of 5/01 you cannot create directories. Skip to bin command)

ftp>cd dir_name


257 \"/cores/dir_name\" is current directory.

ftp> bin

ftp> put file_name_to_be_sent

ftp> quit


External from sunsolve:

# ftp (

login: anonymous

password: your_email_address

ftp> cd cores/dir_name/ (as of 5/01 you cannot create directories. Skip to bin command)

ftp> bin

ftp> get file_name_to_be_retrieved

ftp> quit


Find local NIS servers (see infodoc:4736)

% rpcinfo -b ypserv 2

(systems that respond are running ypserv, and thus NIS servers)

Are they serving your NIS domain?

% yppoll -h responding_server passwd.byname

Network troubleshooting:


arp -a display entries in the arp table

dmesg check status of interface at boot time

ifconfig allows you to add/modify/delete interface parameters (see page 48,75)

kstat -n interface kernal stats for interface (good info)

kstat -p kstat -p | grep interface gives speed and duplex information

ndd -set /dev/eri instance 0 sets view to eri0

ndd /dev/eri \\? shows what eri paramaters are modifiable

ndd -get /dev/tcp tcp_status displays tcp parameter value \’tcp_status\’ also ndd -get /dev/eri link_status

netstat -i gives you interface details # of packets, collisions, errors ect…

netstat -Pn protocol protocol info, no name resolution

netstat -rnv routing info, no name resolution, local veiw

netstat -k interface same info as kstat -p but not well formatted

ping command contacts and reports status of

rup contacts and reports up time for

route (add, get, flush, delete) command allows you to add, get, delete, flush, entries in the routing table

snoop monitors network traffic use -v ,-d ,interface, ipaddress to filter view

spray will send packets to report on transfer rate and number received

traceroute maps and times route from your server to


/etc/defaultdomain – servers domain name

/etc/dhcp.interface – touch file for dhcp boot ex: /etc/dhcp.hme0 (hme0 will boot dhcp)

/etc/hosts – list of hosts (local file) is linked to /etc/inet/hosts

/etc/hosts.equiv – trusted remote hosts and users

/etc/ – contains interface name and/or config at boot time

/etc/protocols – contains protocol names configured and psudo number

/etc/services – contains services configured and default port number

/etc/notrouter – touch file if server has multiple interfaces and should NOT route

/etc/defaultrouter – contains ip address of servers router (needed to reach other subnets)

/etc/gateways – file contains static route entries

/etc/ftpusers – contains a list of users that can NOT ftp login (Solaris 8 and 9)

/etc/ftpd/ftpusers – contains a list of users that can NOT ftp login (Solaris 9)

/etc/netconfig – network config File

/etc/nsswitch.conf – contains config of named services on server

/etc/netmasks – contains a list of base addresses and netmasks

.rhosts – trusted remote hosts and users


dhcpagent – implements client half of the DHCP

in.dhcpd – dhcp daemon run with the -d -v switch for diagnostic output

in.ftpd – in.ftpd is the Internet FTP server process.

in.mpathd – IPMP process. Started by the \’group\’ option of ifconfig command

in.routed – the routing daemon (only present on router servers) -s -q

in.rdisc – implements the ICMP router discovery protocol

in.telnetd – in.telnetd is a server that supports TELNET virtual terminal protocol

xntpd – ntp daemon

How to configure a system to run on a network (info doc 14981) (also see pg 56 Adding a 2nd network interface)

1. /etc/hosts

This file is used to resolve host name into IP addresses. This file must be updated if no naming

service is being used. This file should contain the IP and host name of each system on the

local network, including any gateways or routers.

Example: localhost kishori loghost #this is the IP and host name for the local machine sage #this is the IP and host name for a host on the network

2. # ifconfig -a

Be sure that both the loopback and network interface are up and running.


lo0: flags=849 mtu 8232

inet netmask ff000000

le0: flags=863 mtu 1500

inet netmask ffffff00 broadcast

If the interface to the network is not up and running do the following:

# ifconfig le0 plumb

NOTE: The default may be hme0 (for most Ultra machines)

3. /etc/netmasks

This file should contain the netmasks. If you are using the default netmasks and it appears in

ifconfig -a, this file is not necessary.


# The netmasks file associates Internet Protocol (IP) address

# masks with IP network numbers.


# network-number netmask


# Both the network-number and the netmasks are specified in

# \"decimal dot\" notation, e.g:



4. /etc/defaultrouter

If you want to define a default router include the router name in this file.

5. /etc/hostname.le0 or /etc/hostname.hme0 (depending on you interface type) This file should contain

the name of the local host.

6. /etc/resolv.conf

If you are using dns this file should contain the name of the domain and the IP address of the nameserver.

It is acceptable to list more than one nameserver (up to 4). The nameservers will be consulted in the

order listed. Be careful this file is very sensitive to extra spaces and tabs.


domain support.Corp.Sun.Com


7. /etc/nsswitch.conf

Check this file for the appropriate entries. If a naming service is being used this file should reflect that.

8. It is a good idea to reboot the system at this point. Check to see if the network is working by pinging other

machines both inside and outside of your network.

SSH – Secure Shell :

SSH (Secure Shell/Secure socket shell) is a secure Unix command interface and protocol that enables the user to have

remote access to a device located on a network. SSH is built of three different utilities, slogin, ssh, and scp – these are all

secure versions of existing Unix ultilities, rlogin, rsh and rcp. All SSH commands and sessions are encrypted to enhance

security during a remote session. In most cases, if you have to connect via ssh to a server, ICMP (ping) will be disabled.

In other words you will not be able to ping the server.

Commands for ssh users:

ssh hostname connect to hostname using ssh ex: # ssh – l root

slogin hostname you can use ssh and slogin interchangeably

ssh hostname command run command remotely on hostname

ssh -v hostname connect in verbose mode for debugging

ssh -V determine version number for your copy of ssh

ssh-keygen generate a new public/private key pair

ssh-keygen -c myuserid-ssh2@pha generate new key pair with identifying comment

sftp hostname copy files interactively between hosts (requires SSH2). Commands for an sftp session are similar to standard ftp.

scp filename hostB:filename copy file from current computer to hostB

scp1 filename hostB:filename copy file from current computer to hostB (use if hostB only supports SSH1)

scp hostA:filename hostB:filename copy file between two computers

scp -r hostA:dirname1 hostB:dirname2 copy directory (and its contents) between two computers

scp hostA:fn1 hostB:fn2 copy and rename file between two computers

scp fn1 fn2 fn3 hostB:directoryname copy multiple files into hostB\’s directory

ssh-agent command run command (usually a shell) under control of ssh-agent

ssh-add add local identity to list maintained in memory by ssh-agent

ssh-add filename add identity whose private key is stored in filename to list in memory

ssh-add -l list keys stored in memory

ssh-add -D delete all keys stored in memory

start Starts the target

stop Stops the target.

version Displays the version of service processor firmware running.

Options: short-cuts

-default n/a Causes the verb to perform only its default functions.

-destination n/a Specifies the location of a destination for data.

-display -d Shows the data the user wants to display.

-examine -x Examines the command but does not execute it.

-force -f Causes an immediate shutdown, instead of an orderly shutdown.

-help -h Displays help information.

-level -l Executes the command for the current target and all targets contained through the level specified.

-output -o Specifies the content and form of command output.

-resetstate n/a Resets the state of the target to its default.

-script n/a Skips warnings or prompts normally associated with the command.

-source n/a Indicates the location of a source image.

Send break: When logged into the SP using ssh with a console session running,: ESC + Shift-b

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